Cyber security is a field that works to defend computer systems, networks, and data against digital attacks from malicious parties. This practice includes analyzing threats, identifying vulnerabilities, and assessing risks.
Job opportunities in cybersecurity are on the rise, yet finding one may prove challenging if you lack technical know-how. Luckily, there are resources available to you that will help prepare you for your cybersecurity interview.
1. What is cyber security?
Cyber security refers to the application of technologies, processes and controls designed to thwart unauthorised access to systems, networks, programs and data. Cyber security plays an essential role in protecting sensitive information against theft, loss or exploitation by criminals or hackers.
Cyber attacks can cost organisations billions in fines, reputational damage and data loss. Therefore, it’s vitally important that they establish a comprehensive cybersecurity plan covering their IT infrastructure as well as regular risk assessments to safeguard themselves against attacks.
Implementing effective security measures is only half of the battle; training your staff in best practices and raising their awareness of cyber threats are equally vital components. A strong security culture forms an integral part of an effective cyber resilience plan and demands top management’s dedication and participation.
2. What is hacking?
Hacking refers to any illegal access of digital devices and networks for malicious reasons. This may involve gaining entry without authorization, accessing data without authorisation, damaging systems and networks or taking over control of a computer system.
Hackers can be divided into various groups depending on their goals and motivations, including individual hackers, collective hacking efforts, companies/governments engaging in security hacking for various reasons, and individuals engaging in security hacking to meet personal or professional goals.
Black hat hackers are motivated by financial gain and use brute force techniques and social engineering tactics to exploit vulnerabilities in computer systems and networks, usually for financial gain or information theft. Grey hat hackers may use their skills for raising awareness about vulnerabilities without intending to cause any harm or financial gain themselves.
3. What is cryptography?
Cryptography is an area of study which deals with techniques for encryption and decryption. This complex process encompasses numerous concepts and technologies.
Imagine that Andy wants to send Sam a message, but wants to ensure no one can read it from his end. Luckily, cryptography techniques offer him an easy solution: protecting his message using encryption techniques.
Cryptography is an essential element of data security in the digital realm, enabling computers to communicate without risking theft or unauthorised access, and providing assurances that sent messages cannot be altered during transit. Cryptography provides three primary protections: Confidentiality, Integrity and Authentication.
4. What is network security?
Network security refers to measures taken by an enterprise or company to secure its computer networks and data, using both hardware and software systems. The goal of network security is to restrict access only by authorized personnel.
Organizations need a secure network strategy in place in today’s hyperconnected environment to protect their confidential information from being stolen by cybercriminals and incur financial loss as a result.
An effective network security strategy involves employing several layers of defense. These may include access control, identification and authentication procedures, malware detection capabilities and encryption mechanisms, among others.
5. What is intrusion detection system?
An intrusion detection system (IDS) is a software application or hardware device that monitors traffic flowing over networks and into systems to look for signs of suspicious activity or known threats, sending alerts when they discover such items.
An IDS can detect various forms of malware and security threats, including policy breaches, unauthorized network access and traffic flooding. Furthermore, they can help guard against attacks targeting sensitive data.
IDSs can detect threats in various ways and report them back to administrators, such as signature-based monitoring that detects attacks that have already been identified by security teams within companies.
Another method is anomaly detection, which compares random samples of network traffic against an established baseline standard. While more robust than signature-based monitoring, it may generate false positives.
6. What is firewall?
A firewall is a device designed to safeguard both your network and personal information against intrusion by acting like an administrative filter on network traffic entering it.
Firewalls provide your computer and network with protection from hackers, malware and viruses by blocking unwanted network traffic and assessing it to make sure it is suitable for your network and operating system.
There are various kinds of firewalls – both software and hardware-based – designed to safeguard home networks or companies against external or internal threats.
7. What is malware?
Malware (malicious software) refers to any harmful program used by hackers to infiltrate systems and steal information. Malware includes everything from ads, spyware, viruses and botnets to rootkits, trojans and ransomware.
Viruses are self-replicating programs that infiltrate computers by attaching themselves to existing programs, altering files and spreading across computers. They may corrupt data files or even delete entire systems and networks if left unchecked.
Worms resemble viruses in their spread via security vulnerabilities to automatically replicate across computers and networks. Although more difficult to detect due to lack of signatures for detection purposes, worms become easier targets once multiple infected systems exist on a network.
Other types of malware include adware, spyware and keyloggers. Spyware monitors users without their consent while keyloggers monitor keystrokes in order to gain access to sensitive data.
8. What is intrusion prevention system?
An intrusion prevention system (IPS) is a network security application designed to detect, report and block malicious activities before they take place. An IPS may even take preventative steps against harmful behaviour occurring.
An Intrusion Prevention System can respond by sending out alarms, dropping malicious packets, resetting connections or blocking traffic from an IP address which has caused issues, or using firewall settings to restrict or deny access until manual solutions can be provided by administrators.
IPS systems work best when combined with other security products such as firewalls, anti-virus/anti-malware software and other tools for comprehensive network protection. IPS can detect and prevent network attacks such as brute force attacks, Denial of Service attacks and vulnerability exploits before they take place – and enforce secure protocols while blocking insecure ones.
9. What is network traffic analysis?
Network traffic analysis refers to the process of recording and examining every detail and statistic regarding data packets transmitted across networks for purposes such as performance optimization, security risk reduction or overall network management. This practice can provide invaluable insights that may prove valuable in making strategic decisions in regards to performance, security or network administration decisions.
Security-wise, network traffic analysis tools monitor all of the traffic that passes through an organization’s network in order to detect malicious or suspicious data and assess bandwidth utilization to detect possible bottlenecks in bandwidth use.
The best network traffic analysis tools provide security teams with a clear picture of individual, group and collective assets on a network so they can determine whether an alert merits human response.
An effective network traffic analysis solution should provide a historical view of patterns and blips, in order to detect unusual behaviour that could indicate threats or IT issues – so you can act proactively on them before they become an issue for users.
10. What is IPS?
An intrusion prevention system (IPS) is a network security solution that detects and blocks malicious traffic. IPSs typically sit between the source and destination of network traffic and just behind firewalls for optimal effectiveness.
IPS systems monitor and analyze packet streams for known attacks or signatures, dropping any suspicious packets while blocking future traffic from attackers with IP addresses or ports known to them.
This can be accomplished using either signature-based detection or statistical anomaly detection techniques that randomly sample network traffic and compare it with pre-established baseline performance levels.
When used in combination with a firewall, an intrusion prevention system (IPS) provides additional security against malware, DDoS attacks and policy violations. But careful tuning must be undertaken in order to minimize false positives and missed attacks; excessive false positives could potentially slow your network down too much if not tuned properly; hence it’s essential that the chosen IPS fulfills all your network security needs.